大同世界地球村

 圖片;  西班牙Cambados市無名石雕, 我給它取名[執其一端為異端, 執其多端為好村民].Image

Photo: Untitled sculpture in Cambados, Spain.

I would like to name it:  One who holds onto one view is an extremist; One who holds onto many views is a good villager.

大同世界地球村

大同世界不單是儒家, 更是世上大多數哲学與宗教家追求的理想.

近年來因着科技的突飛猛迸,交通,資訊日進千里的流通,地球已成名符其實的地球村,有時與地球另一邊的人對話,竟比與鄰居見面還容易.我們都成了大同世界地球村的村民.

但這只是形体上的接近,精神上各地的文化,宗教,政治,風土,習俗,忽然要面對陌生異己的外來挑戰, 一時難以適應, 引至各種意識形態的磨擦,糾紛不止的動蕩甚至戰爭. 舉其大者有東西文化, 傳統與現代的衝突, 基督與依斯蘭宗教的衝突, 民主與專制, 及資本主義與共產主義的政治經濟衝突.

但地球村文化, 經濟, 政治一体化已迫近眼前, 非任何主觀意願所能阻止. 為了不讓無曰無之的糾紛無休止地漫廷下去,面對如此困境,各地的有識之士都費盡心思, 提出各种解困之法. 但正是賣花者讚花香, 他們大都據從自己所信仰服膺的理論為出發点, 要求或希望他人能作出改變,以應從自己所認為是最優秀的文化, 經濟, 政治及宗教觀念. 如儒学者認為要解决世人現今道德淪喪, 必須回復儒家的仁義禮教. 塔理班則要重倡回教基要派原教旨, 印度学者則指种姓制度是世上最完美的社会制度,各宗教團体則認為只有其信仰才能救世. 他們如是各說各話, 又怎能找到共識, 給地球村帶來和諧呢?

但要把世上各个文化, 思想, 宗教, 傳統作比較, 梳理出各自的長短優劣, 是近乎徒勞不可能之事, 如單是基督教就有三千多个教派, 它們又各有各的理由認為自己的教義才最正確. 況且, 人是慣性動物, 不單日常生活飲食習慣難以改變, 思想,傳統,文化的改造更難如登天.

事實上,世上並沒有任何一種學說思想能擁有全部真理與智慧.

物惡獨勝

中国古語云: 物惡獨勝, 實是睿智之言.

人世間無論是个個個人, 社團與社團, 部族與部族, 及 国家与国家之間的關係交際, 若能留有餘地, 不強求一己獨勝, 讓對方也有一些勝利感, 尊嚴, 造成双贏之局, 大家便可相安和平共存. 若一己獨勝,  失敗的對方必心存不平不忿, 為了尊嚴,必伺机板平報復, 鬥爭永無休止, 双方都不得安寧.

自然界的万千現象, 物种, 亦惡獨勝. 如太多的雨水可引致水災,  過多的陽光會引致旱災, 百物不生. 動植物界多能在双贏的狀態下互助互利, 繁殖生存. 若某一物种過於強悍取得獨勝, 最后反會把自己趕上絕路. 所以双贏亦是自然之道.

要給大同世界地球村帶來和諧,可行之法是要常記物惡獨勝,我們應採取包容並納的雙贏心態, 放開胸懷, 擁抱世間各种不同觀念.

除了物惡獨勝, 儒家的[君子和而不同],道家的[知其白, 守其黑, 負其陰, 抱其陽], 佛家的[無所執], 還有大多數宗教提倡的愛, 寬恕与和平, 都給我們充份提供了作為一个良好大同世界地球村村民的應有正確心態.

宋代理学家程灝說[執其一端為異端,執其兩端為聖人],我想如把它改為[執其一端為異端, 執其多端為好村民]則更符合時代要求.

願大家共同努力,創建全面和諧的大同世界地球村.

林半立

 THE GLOBAL VILLAGE OF GREAT HARMONY

A world of great harmony is not only the ideal of Confucian, but of most philosophies and religions.

With the speedy advancements in communication, travel and trade in recent years, global village has become a reality. Sometimes it’s easier and faster to talk to someone on the other side of the world than to cross the street to visit a neighbor.

We are all villagers of the global village, not only in physical terms, but also mentally. Like it or not,  the challenges of interactions with the different cultures, ideas, values and customs  are suddenly facing us.

Adjusting and adapting to these rapid changes can create tensions and conflicts, resulting in chaotic disturbances that often end up in wars. There are the cultural clashes between the eastern traditions and western modernism, between Christian and Islamic religions, and between totalitarian and democratic political and economic systems.

 

Numerous scholars and thinkers have devoted their efforts to try to ease these tensions, unfortunately, most of them can only rely on what they know best and are most familiar with. To bring harmony to the corrupted moral world, Confucian scholars advocate the revival of ancient Confucian rules and rites. The Taliban wants to abide by their fundamental teachings.  Traditional Indian scholars insist the caste system is the best way to bring order to the society. Various religious groups are steadfast in their beliefs that their religion is the only solution.

 At the same time, it’s almost futile to try to compare and sort out which tradition or culture are superior to the others. There are, for example, more than 3000 denominations in the Christian faith and each group claims to have the best interpretation of the bible.

By holding tight to our own beliefs, how can harmony be achieved among the villagers with vastly diverse backgrounds? Humans are animals of habit. It’s difficult enough to ask them to change some minor daily life habits, let alone to change major cultural and religious beliefs.

  Nature dislikes a lone winner .

 This ancient Chinese proverb is very wise indeed.

In all relationships of people to people, community to community, country to country, if we are guided not by a winner-takes-all attitude, but rather try to create a win-win situation and dignity for both sides, we can avoid bad feelings and conflicts. If one side feels that it has been wronged and disrespected, resentment and revenge will follow.

The same principles apply in nature: if there is too much rain or too much sun, nothing can grow. In the flora and fauna kingdoms, mutual benefit is commonplace, if one species overpowers the others, it will eventually end up harming itself.

 The only possibility is to make people aware of the concept that Nature dislikes a lone winner, to open their mind to the concept of win-win, and to embrace the many conceptual differences of the world.

 After all, not one philosophy or religion has a monopoly on truth and wisdom.

Besides the concept that Nature dislikes a lone winner, Confucians also talk about harmony within differences. Taoists preach that we must know the white, keep the black, embrace the yin and carry the yan.  Buddhist talk about non-attachment, and most religions talk about love and forgiveness. These are all common values and good guidelines for us to live by as global villagers.

The Sung dynasty philosopher Chin Hao said: Holding to one view is an extremist, holding to both views is a saint. In this age of the global village, I would propose a modified version:  One who holds onto one view is an extremist, One who holds onto many views is a good villager.

May we all try our best to be a good villager and bring harmony and peace to this chaotic world.

Lap Lam

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